Overview - Verb Groupings
Japanese verbs can be classified in several ways.
The two most important classifications in learning Japanese verbs, group belonging and transitive or intransitive, are introduced here.
Classification according to conjugation
Japanese verbs have inflection. They are classified into three groupings according to the way they are conjugated.
Verbs in the same group follow the same rule when making various verb forms (with some exception).
|Group 1||:||most i-ending verbs (iki-masu, kaki-masu, ai-masu)|
|Group 2||:||all e-ending verbs (tabe-masu, ake-masu, de-masu)|
|some i-ending verbs (mi-masu, i-masu, kari-masu)|
|Group 3||:||two verbs; shimasu and kimasu (to come)|
Transitive verbs and Intransitive verbs
Japanese transitive and intransitive verbs are written using the same Kanji but are read differently in many cases.
In our materials, they are entered separately; "vt." is used to indicate transitive verb, "vi." for intransitive verb.
Kodomo wa jitensha o kowashimashita.
My child broke a bicycle.
Jitensha wa kowaremashita.
A bicycle broke.
Overview - Verb Conjugation
In our materials, we pick up 17 verb conjugation forms.
To make each form, other than the masu form, there are certain rules which must be followed depending on which group a verb belongs to.
|masu form||masu||masu form affirmative|
|masen||masu form negative|
|mashita||masu form past affirmative|
|masendeshita||masu form past negative|
|Plain form||root form||Plain form affirmative (dictionary form)|
|nai form||Plain form negative|
|ta form||Plain form past affirmative|
|nakatta form||Plain form past negative|
|Other forms||te form|
|Conditional form (ba form)|
|Causative passive Long form|
|Causative passive Short form|