Intermediate Japanese 307

Chuumoku no Wadai

Hot Issues

Intermediate

Maru Kooreisha to Unten-Menkyo

aged person and driver's license

Nihon de kuruma no unten-menkyo wa 18-sai kara toru koto ga dekimasu.
Soshite, nenrei no joogen wa arimasen.
Hooritsu-joo wa 90-sai demo, 100-sai demo, menkyo ga areba, kuruma o unten suru koto ga dekimasu.

Shikashi, kinnen, 70-sai toka, 80-sai no hito ga kuruma o unten shite, jiko o okosu.
Sunawachi, Koorei-sha ni yoru kootsuu-jiko ga gekizoo shite imasu.

Tokuni, "Akuseru to Bureeki o machigaeta" toka,
"Koosoku-dooro de Gyaku-soo shita" toitta jiko ga Ato o Tachimasen.

Nihon de unten-menkyo no yuukoo-kikan wa kihon-teki ni 5-nen ka, 3-nen desu.
70-sai miman no hito wa 5-nen, 70-sai ijoo no hito wa 3-nen desu.

Desukara, 70-sai ijoo no hito wa 3-nen oki ni menkyo o Kooshin shinakereba narimasen.
Soshite, sono toki, tokubetsu na Kooshuu o ukenakereba narimasen.

Mata, 75-sai ijoo no hito wa Handan-ryoku ya Kioku-ryoku no kensa mo ukeru koto ni natte imasu.
Soredemo, Koorei-sha ni yoru jiko wa fue-tsuzukete imasu.

"Koorei-sha no unten-menkyo ni Nenrei-Seigen o mooketa hoo ga ii" toiu iken ga fuete imasu.
Demo, Hanashi wa soo kantan janai yoo desu.
Sore wa chihoo no Kaso-ka to Koorei-ka ni kankei ga arimasu.

Mukashi, chihoo no machi ni wa takusan hito ga sunde imashita.
Soshite, kaku-shuuraku ni wa Niku-ya, Sakana-ya, Yao-ya nado shooten ga arimashita.
Juumin wa shuuraku no naka de seikatsu ni hitsuyoo na mono o kau koto ga dekimashita.

Tokoroga, genzai, chihoo no machi wa Kaso-ka to Koorei-ka ga susumimashita.
Wakai hito wa, minna, dai-toshi ni dete ikimashita.
Sono kekka, Otoshiyori dake no setai ga fuemashita.
Soshite, kaku-shuuraku kara shooten ga kiete shimaimashita.

Shuuraku ni sunde iru hito wa kuruma de shigai-chi made kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.
Shitagatte, unten-menkyo ni Nenrei-Seigen o mookeru to, chihoo no otoshiyori wa seikatsu dekinaku natte shimaimasu.

Aru choosa ni yoruto, chihoo de wa 60% ijoo no otoshiyori ga "Kuruma ga nai to, seikatsu dekinai" soo desu.

Ima, Nihon kakuchi de iroiro na kokoromi ga hajimatte imasu.
Shigai-chi no suupaa ga kuruma ni niku ya yasai o tsunde, kaku-shuuraku o mawaru...toka,
Doroon o tsukatte, shuuraku no otoshiyori ni nichiyoohin o todokeru...toka.

Minna ga Chie o Dashite, kaiketsu shinakereba naranai mondai da to omoimasu.

Practice Each Sentence

Koorei-sha to Unten-Menkyo

koorei-sha aged person, unten-menkyo driver's license, unten [sv] driving, operation, menkyo license

1. Nihon de kuruma no unten-menkyo wa 18-sai kara toru koto ga dekimasu.

kuruma car, unten [sv] driving, operation, menkyo license, -sai counter for ages
toru to take, get, -koto ga dekimasu can, be able to do

2. Soshite, nenrei no joogen wa arimasen.

soshite and, nenrei age, joogen maximum, (upper) limit

3. Hooritsu-joo wa 90-sai demo, 100-sai demo, menkyo ga areba, kuruma o unten suru koto ga dekimasu.

hooritsu-joo legally, hooritsu law, -demo even, even if
menkyo license, areba ba form of aru; if you/we have, if there is
unten [sv] driving, operation

4. Shikashi, kinnen, 70-sai toka, 80-sai no hito ga kuruma o unten shite, jiko o okosu.

shikashi however, kinnen in recent years, -toka, (-toka) and, or, A and B (and etc.)
hito person, people, jiko o okosu cause an accident, jiko accident, okosu to cause

"one is involved in an accident" is Jiko ni au.
"one cause an accident" is Jiko o okosu or Jiko o suru.

5. Sunawachi, Koorei-sha ni yoru kootsuu-jiko ga gekizoo shite imasu.

sunawachi namely, that is (to say), in other words, koorei-sha aged person
-ni yoru by, be caused by, due to, from (cause), kootsuu-jiko traffic accident
kootsuu transportation, traffic, gekizoo [sv] increase markedly

6. Tokuni, "Akuseru to Bureeki o machigaeta" toka,
"Koosoku-dooro de Gyaku-soo shita" toitta jiko ga Ato o Tachimasen.

tokuni especially, specially, akuseru accelerator, bureeki brake
machigaeta ta form of machigaeru; make a mistake, A to B o machigaeru mistake A for B, confuse A with B
koosoku-dooro expressway, freeway, dooro road, street, gyaku-soo drive the wrong way up
gyaku opposite, contrary, reverse, -toitta such as, and things like that
ato o tatanai (tachimasen) continuously happen, no end (idiomatic phrase)

7. Nihon de unten-menkyo no yuukoo-kikan wa kihon-teki ni 5-nen ka, 3-nen desu.

yuukoo-kikan term of validity, valid period, yuukoo [na] effective, valid, kikan term, period
kihon-teki ni basically, -ka or

8. 70-sai miman no hito wa 5-nen, 70-sai ijoo no hito wa 3-nen desu.

-miman under, below, less than, ijoo A or more, A or over, (more than A)

(figure) miman does not include the figure.
(figure) ijoo / ika "more / less" include the figure.

9. Desukara, 70-sai ijoo no hito wa 3-nen oki ni menkyo o Kooshin shinakereba narimasen.

desukara therefore, (period) -oki every (3 years), menkyo license, kooshin [sv] update, renewal
-nakereba narimasen expressing an obligation or necessity; must do, have to do, need to do

10. Soshite, sono toki, tokubetsu na Kooshuu o ukenakereba narimasen.

sono toki at that time, tokubetsu [na] special, particular
kooshuu course, class, lecture, ukenai nai form of ukeru; take, have (test, exam, checkup, lesson, influence, etc)

(checkup, exam, lesson) o ukeru means "one takes/has a checkup".
(checkup, exam, lesson) o suru could mean both "one takes" or "one gives".
Kanja wa kensa o uketa / shita.
Isha wa kensa o shita.
kanja : patient, isha : doctor, kensa : checkup, inspection
You cannot use morau "take, get, receive" for a checkup, an exam, a lesson, etc.

11. Mata, 75-sai ijoo no hito wa Handan-ryoku ya Kioku-ryoku no kensa mo ukeru koto ni natte imasu.

mata also, handan-ryoku judgment, ability to judge something, handan [sv] judgment, decision
kioku-ryoku memory, ability to memorize, kioku [sv] memory, remembrance, -ryoku power, ability
kensa [sv] check, checkup, inspection, ukeru to take, have (test, exam, checkup, lesson, influence, etc)
-koto ni natte imasu expressing a rule or a regulation; be scheduled to do, be expected, be supposed to

12. Soredemo, Koorei-sha ni yoru jiko wa fue-tsuzukete imasu.

soredemo even so, but still, koorei-sha aged person, -ni yoru by, be caused by, due to, from (cause)
jiko accident, fuemasu to increase, -tsuzukemasu (stem +) keep doing, go on doing, continue to do

13. "Koorei-sha no unten-menkyo ni Nenrei-Seigen o mooketa hoo ga ii" toiu iken ga fuete imasu.

unten-menkyo driver's license, nenrei-seigen age limit, mooketa ta form fo mookeru
(kisoku o) mookeru set up (rules or regulations), -ta hoo ga ii giving an advice or a suggestion; you/we should do
-toiu quotation marker, iken opinion, idea, thought, fuete te form of fueru; increase

14. Demo, Hanashi wa soo kantan janai yoo desu.

hanashi wa soo kantan janai it (issue) is not so simple (set phrase), hanashi a talk, story / matter, issue
kantan [na] easy, simple, -yoo desu it seems, it looks

15. Sore wa chihoo no Kaso-ka to Koorei-ka ni kankei ga arimasu.

chihoo local, region, countryside, kaso-ka depopulation, koorei-ka aging (of population)
-ka -zation, movement, trend, change, kankei ga aru be related to, be connected with

16. Mukashi, chihoo no machi ni wa takusan hito ga sunde imashita.

mukashi old times, in the past, formerly, chihoo local, region, countryside, machi town, city
takusan many, a lot of, hito person, people, sunde te form of sumu; live

17. Soshite, kaku-shuuraku ni wa Niku-ya, Sakana-ya, Yao-ya nado shooten ga arimashita.

kaku- each, shuuraku community, town, village
niku-ya meat shop, sakana-ya fish store, yao-ya vegetable shop
-nado such as, etc., shooten store, shop

"vegetables" is Yasai, but "vegetable shop" is not Yasai-ya, but it is Yao-ya.

18. Juumin wa shuuraku no naka de seikatsu ni hitsuyoo na mono o kau koto ga dekimashita.

juumin residents, naka in, inside, seikatsu [sv] life, living, hitsuyoo [na] need, necessary, required
mono things, kau to buy, -koto ga dekimasu can, be able to do

19. Tokoroga, genzai, chihoo no machi wa Kaso-ka to Koorei-ka ga susumimashita.

tokoroga however, genzai present, current, now, machi town, city
kaso-ka depopulation, koorei-ka aging (of population), susumimasu to go forward, progress, advance

20. Wakai hito wa, minna, dai-toshi ni dete ikimashita.

wakai hito young people, minna everyone, all, dai-toshi (very) large city
dete iku to go out, leave, (place) ni dete iku move to, settle to

21. Sono kekka, Otoshiyori dake no setai ga fuemashita.

sono kekka as a result of that, otoshiyori old person, aged person, -dake only
setai household, fuemasu to increase

Koorei-sha and Otoshiyori are the same meaning.
Koorei-sha is a formal word and Otoshiyori is more spoken.

22. Soshite, kaku-shuuraku kara shooten ga kiete shimaimashita.

shooten store, shop, kiete te form of kieru; disappear
-te shimaimashita expressing completion (completely) and one's regret

23. Shuuraku ni sunde iru hito wa kuruma de shigai-chi made kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.

sunde iru hito people who live (in place), shigai-chi city area, -made to, till, until , kaimono [sv] shopping
ikanai nai form of iku; go, -nakereba narimasen must do, have to do, need to do

24. Shitagatte, unten-menkyo ni Nenrei-Seigen o mookeru to, chihoo no otoshiyori wa seikatsu dekinaku natte shimaimasu.

shitagatte therefore, nenrei-seigen age limit, mookeru to set up rules or regulations
-to when, if, chihoo local, region, countryside, otoshiyori old person, aged person
seikatsu dekinai cannot live, seikatsu [sv] life, living, dekinai nai form of dekiru; cannot do
-naku narimasu expressing a change; come not to do, become not able to do
natte te form of naru, -te shimaimasu expressing completion (completely) or one's regret

25. Aru choosa ni yoruto, chihoo de wa 60% ijoo no otoshiyori ga "Kuruma ga nai to, seikatsu dekinai" soo desu.

aru a (something), a certain, one, choosa [sv] investigation, inquiry, study
-ni yoruto according to, ijoo A or more, A or over, (more than A), otoshiyori old person, aged person
nai nai form of aru; do not have, -to when, if, -soo desu reported information; I heard, they said

(verb phrase) + to means "When" or "If".
-ni yoruto means "according to".
-ni yoru means "by, be caused by, due to, from (cause)".

26. Ima, Nihon kakuchi de iroiro na kokoromi ga hajimatte imasu.

ima now, present, current, kakuchi many places, various places, every place, each place
iroiro [na] various, many, kokoromi a try, an attempt, experiment, hajimatte te form of hajimaru; start, begin

27. Shigai-chi no suupaa ga kuruma ni niku ya yasai o tsunde, kaku-shuuraku o mawaru...toka,

suupaa supermarket, niku meat, yasai vegetables, tsunde te form of tsumu; load, put on board
mawaru to turn round, go round, -toka, (-toka) and, or, A and B (and etc.)

28. Doroon o tsukatte, shuuraku no otoshiyori ni nichiyoohin o todokeru...toka.

doroon drone, tsukatte te form of tsukau; use
nichiyoohin daily commodities, todokeru to deliver

29. Minna ga Chie o Dashite, kaiketsu shinakereba naranai mondai da to omoimasu.

minna everyone, all, chie o dasu think hard about (problem), rack one's brain (set phrase)
chie wisdom, intelligence, wits, dasu to give, put out, serve, show
kaiketsu [sv] solve, mondai problem, trouble, issue, -to omoimasu I think that, I guess, I believe

Vocabulary & Pick Up

Functional patterns used in the sentences (Chapter numbers are from Building Up Conversation)

menkyo o toru koto ga dekimasu / unten suru koto ga dekimasu
verb root form + koto ga dekimasu:can do, be able to do

Level 2 Chapter 1

90-sai demo, 100-sai demo
te form + mo, (-temo / -demo):even, even if

Level 2 Chapter 8

menkyo ga areba
ba form ; -ba,:ba conditional; If

Level 2 Chapter 15

70-sai toka, 8-sai / machigaeta toka / shuuraku o mawaru toka, doroon de todokeru toka
-toka, -toka,:A and B and so on, A, B, C, etc.

Level 3 Chapter 9

unten shite, jiko o okosu / niku ya yasai o tsunde
te form -te / -kute / -de:used as a conjunction "and", also expresses a reason or a cause; "because", "due to"

Level 2 Chapter 6 and Level 3 Chapter 12

kooshin shinakereba narimasen / kooshuu o ukenakereba narimasen
-nakereba narimasen:expressing obligation or necessity; must do, have to do, need to do

Level 2 Chapter 16

kensa o ukeru koto ni natte imasu
verb root form + -koto ni narimasu:expressing rule or regulation

Level 3 Chapter 3

nenre-seigen o mooketa hoo ga ii
verb ta form + -ta hoo ga ii:had better do, should do

Level 2 Chapter 12

hanashi wa soo kantan janai yoo desu
plain form + yoo desu:It seems, It looks

Level 3 Chapter 8

shooten ga kiete shimaimashita / seikatsu dekinaku natte shimaimasu
verb te form + -te shimaimasu:expressing one's regret or completion

Level 3 Chapter 7

seikatsu dekinaku natte shimaimasu
-naku narimasu
:expressing a change; come not to do, become not able to do

Level 3 Chapter 5

nenrei-seigen o mookeru to / kuruma ga nai to
verb root/nai form + -to:when, if

Level 2 Chapter 15

kuruma ga nai to seikatsu dekinai soo desu
plain form + soo desu:reported information; I heard, he/they said

Level 2 Chapter 11

mondai da to omoimasu
plain form + to omoimasu:I think, I believe, I guess, I feel

Level 2 Chapter 3

Copyright (C)CosCom Language Service, Inc.All Rights Reserved.