stem + aimasu
to do something to each other
stem + dashimasu
to start doing, to begin doing
stem + hajimemasu
to start doing, to begin doing
stem + kata
how to do something; tsukai-kata "how to use", yomi-kata "how to read"
stem + masen ka?
Won't you do? ; This pattern is used to ask a person to do something with you.
In casual speech, the nai form, -nai?, is often used instead of this pattern.
This pattern is also used to give a suggestion to do something.
cf. te form + mashoo ka?
stem + mashoo
Let's do ; Mashoo is one of the volitional forms meaning "Let's do".
This pattern is also used to offer to do something.
stem + mashoo ka?
Shall we do?, Shall I do? ; This pattern is used to ask someone to do something together or to give a suggestion to do, which is similar to masen ka?.
This pattern is also used to offer to do something.
stem + nagara
while doing ; This pattern expresses that two actions are taking place simultaneously.
stem + naoshimasu
to redo, to do again, to do over (again)
stem + nasai
Please do, Do! ; This pattern expresses a direction, an order or a command.
stem + ni ikimasu
to go to do something ; This pattern expresses the purpose of going somewhere.
cf. te form + ikimasu
stem + ni kimasu
to come to do something ; This pattern expresses the purpose of coming somewhere.
cf. te form + kimasu
stem + okuremasu
to be late in doing, to be late for doing
stem + owarimasu
to finish doing
stem + soo desu
it seems ...., it looks.... ; This pattern expresses the speaker's own impression.
This pattern is also used with adjectives as follows.
cf. plain form + soo desu
|Verb Stem||+||soo desu||ame ga furi-soo desu|
|i-Adjective, drop last i||+||soo desu||oishi-soo desu|
|na-Adjective||+||soo desu||kantan soo desu|
stem + soo na
The verb stem + soo can be an adjectival phrase or an adverbial phrase. When this modifies a noun it becomes "soo na + noun", Ame ga furi soo na tenki "the weather which looks like it's going to rain".
When modifying a verb it becomes "soo ni + verb".
stem + soo ni narimasu
almost do, come close to doing something.
stem + sugimasu
to do too much ; This pattern is used with verbs and adjectives in the following ways.
|Verb Stem||tabe-sugimasu||eat too much|
|i-Adjective, drop last i||taka-sugimasu||too expensive|
-sugi is used as a noun phrase ; tabe-sugi, nomi-sugi, futori-sugi.
stem + tai desu
I want to do something, I would like to do something
Tai conjugates like an i-adjective.
|-tai desu||-takunai desu|
|-takatta desu||-takunakatta desu|
stem + tai-n desu ga / tai-n desu kedo
I would like to do (but, and, so); This pattern is used to give a reason before asking for permission or some information, or making a request in order to soften your statement.
stem + tagarimasu
he / she wants to do something ; This pattern is used when expressing a third person's desire.
stem + tsuzukemasu
to continue doing, to go on doing, to keep doing
stem + wasuremasu
to forget to do something
stem + yasui / nikui
easy to do, comfortable to do / difficult to do, uncomfortable to do
O + Stem
o + stem + desu
honorific pattern showing respect
o + stem + kudasai
honorific pattern expressing a polite request or offer (would you please do something)
o + stem + ni narimasu
honorific pattern expressing respectfulness (someone does something)
o + stem + shimasu
honorific pattern expressing humility (I will do something for you)
root / nai form + koto ga(mo) arimasu
not always but to do something from time to time, it can happen sometimes
cf. ta form + koto ga arimasu
root form + koto ga dekimasu
to be able to do, can do
root / nai form + koto ni narimasu
This pattern expresses a decision made by someone else.
|root / nai form||+||koto ni narimasu|
This pattern is also used with an adjective or a noun. In this usage, this pattern means "become" and expresses a change.
|i-Adjective; i-ku||+||ku narimasu||samuku-narimasu|
|na-Adjective||+||ni narimasu||kirei ni narimasu|
|Noun||+||ni narimasu||fuyu ni narimasu|
root / nai form + koto ni natte imasu
This is a compound pattern of koto ni narimasu and the te form + imasu.
This pattern expresses that something has been scheduled or arranged, or expresses a rule, a regulation or a custom.
root / nai form + koto ni shimasu
This pattern expresses the speaker's decision or choice. This pattern is also used with an adjective or a noun. In this usage, this pattern means "to make something into a certain state".
|Verb root / nai form||+||koto ni shimasu||iku-koto ni himasu|
|i-Adjective; i-ku||+||ku shimasu||takaku-shimasu|
|na-Adjective||+||ni shimasu||kirei ni shimasu|
|Noun||+||ni shimasu||koohii ni shimasu|
root form + made
until something happens
root form + mae ni
before doing ; This pattern is always used with the root form. The tense of the sentence is determined by the main clause.
root form + no ni
in order to do, for ; This pattern expresses the purpose of doing something.
cf. plain form + noni
root form + tame ni
in order to do, for ; This pattern expresses the purpose of doing something.
When this phrase modifies a noun tame ni becomes tame no (noun).
cf. plain form + tame ni
root form + tokoro desu
be just about to do ; This tokoro means not "place" but "point" or "state".
cf. te form + iru tokoro, ta form + tokoro
root / nai form + to
when, if, after ; This is one of the conditional patterns.
This pattern is used when [A] happens, [B] always naturally happens, or when [A] happens, immediately [B] happens.
root / nai form + tsumori desu
to plan to do ; This pattern expresses the speaker's intention.
root form + uchi ni
while a certain situation holds
cf. nai form + uchi ni
root / nai form + yoo ni
in order to do, for ; This pattern expresses a purpose. This is used with the potential form, unintentional verbs such as wakaru, mieru, or the nai form.
root / nai form + yoo ni iimasu (tsutaemasu)
I will tell him to do ; please do ; This pattern expresses an indirect command.
The te form + kudasai, itte kudasai or tsutaete kudasai, are also common meaning "please tell him to do".
root / nai form + yoo ni narimasu (nai form : naku narimasu)
This pattern expresses a change of state, condition or behavior.
In case of verbs in the negative form, it becomes -naku narimasu.
root / nai form + yoo ni natte imasu
This pattern expresses a mechanism or system of something.
root / nai form + yoo ni shimasu
try to do ; This pattern expresses one's effort.
root / nai form + yoo ni shite kudasai
please do ; This pattern expresses an indirect command.
root / nai form + yori
more (less) ... than .... ; This pattern expresses a comparison.
root / nai form + yotei desu
to be scheduled to do, to plan to do
root / nai form + zo
I do it, I will do it ; This pattern expresses speaker's strong intention.
nai form : naide
nai form : naide kudasai
Please don't do something ; This pattern expresses negative requests.
nai form : naide morai-tai
I don't want someone to do something for me; This is the negative of -te morai-tai.
nai form : nakereba narimasen
to have to do, must do, need to do
nai form : naku narimasu
root / nai form + yoo ni narimasu
nai form : nakute
because ; Nakute is a sort of the negative and it indicates a cause.
nai form : nakute mo
even if (negative) ; This pattern expresses a conditional pattern.
cf. te form + mo
nai form : nakute mo ii
do not have to do, do not need to do / giving a permission (it is OK even if ....)
nai form + uchi ni
before something happens
cf. root form + uchi ni
ta form / nai form + hoo ga
doing something is more/less .... than (doing another) ; This pattern expresses a comparison between two actions.
The basic comparison pattern is [A] yori [B] hoo ga. Yori follows the root form and hoo follows the ta form (nai form).
When the [A] and [B] are nouns, it becomes [A] yori [B] no hoo ga.
ta form / nai form + hoo ga ii
it is better to do, you should do ; This is one of the comparison patterns.
This pattern expresses advice or a suggestion, or expresses one's choice or preference.
ta form + ato de
ta form + bakari desu
I have just done
cf. te form + bakari imasu
ta form + koto ga arimasu
have done something before ; This pattern expresses one's experiences.
cf. root /nai form + koto ga arimasu
ta form + tokoro desu
have just done
cf. root form + tokoro, te form + iru tokoro
ta form + mama
leaving something as it is
sono mama (kono mama) also commonly means "just like this".
ta form + ra (-tara)
This pattern expresses a condition.
|1.||if, in case ; This conditional pattern is usually used for personal matters and the main action or a conclusion depending on the situation.|
|2.||when ; This pattern is also used to mean "when" or "just after".|
|3.||when ; If you use this pattern for an event in the past, it expresses that you didn't expect the event to happen.|
ta form + ra doo desu ka?
Why don't you do, you should do ; This is used to give advice or a suggestion.
ta form + ra ii desu ka?
This is used for asking someone for advice or a suggestion using an interrogative.
ta form + -ri, -ri, shimasu
|1.||do this and that ; This pattern expresses some actions done in the form of a list and is used to pick up main actions from several actions.|
|2.||This pattern is also used to express a repeated action or a continuous state.|
ta form + toori ni
to do something as you saw it, as it was written, as it was said .... etc.
Plain form verbs are used on their own in casual conversations between friends, family members and co-workers. When making questions using the plain form, the question marker ka? is omitted and the tone of sentence ending words is raised.
plain form + baai
in case of, if, when
plain form + deshoo
|1.||it should be, it must be ; This pattern expresses a conjecture by which the speaker believes something firmly.|
|2.||This pattern is also used to ask an agreement or make a confirmation.|
plain form + deshoo ka?
This is an indirect question.
plain form + dake desu
just do something, only do something
plain form + hazu desu
it should be, it is supposed to ; This pattern is used when the speaker confirms his/her inference with certain factual information.
plain form + ka,
This pattern makes a quoted embedded structure which has an interrogative such as "what", "when" or "how much", as in "Do you know when he is coming back?".
plain form + ka doo ka,
whether or not, if or not ; This pattern makes a quoted embedded structure which does not have an interrogative.
plain form + kamo shiremasen
perhaps, probably ; This pattern expresses uncertainty, probability or possibility.
plain form + kara
therefore, so, since or because ; This pattern expresses a reason or a cause.
plain form + kedo
cf. kedo at the end of a sentence or in the middle of a sentence
plain form + koto
This pattern forms a noun phrase such as kaku-koto "writing", taberu-koto "eating".
Koto is also used to form a noun clause in the embedded structure.
plain form + mitai desu
it seems, it looks, it looks as if
cf. te form + mitai desu
plain form + -n desu
This pattern expresses one's emotional emphasis, such as concern, surprise and irritation. It is also used when asking for or giving information.
This pattern is especially common under the following circumstances:
|a.||When softening a statement of desire|
|b.||When expressing concern, surprise or irritation|
|c.||When giving or asking for a reason|
|d.||When offering or asking for an explanation|
This pattern is often used with ga, -n desu ga, or -tai desu, -tai-n desu ga.
See ga at the end or in the middle of a sentence and -tai-n desu ga.
plain form + no
This pattern forms a noun phrase with particles such as -no wa, -no ga, -no o;
kaku-no wa, miru-no ga, suru-no o.
This noun phrase is used in an embedded structure such as koto.
|2.||In casual speech, no is used at the end of a sentence in stead of -n desu.|
plain form + no?
question marker ; In casual speech, no is used as a question marker instead of ka.
plain form + no ka,
This pattern makes a quoted embedded structure which has an interrogative such as "what", "when" or "how much", like the plain form + ka.
plain form + node
therefore, so, since or because ; This pattern indicates a reason or a cause.
plain form + noni
although, in spite of ; This pattern expresses one's regret or complaint.
cf. root form + no ni
plain form + rashii desu
it seems, I heard ; This pattern expresses uncertainty or a supposition based on objective information from outside sources
plain form + shi, shi,
and also, besides, moreover ; This is used to give explanations, reasons or excuses.
plain form + soo desu
I heard, he said, they said ; This pattern indicates reported information.
This is used to tell someone what you heard or what you saw on TV, newspaper, etc.
cf. stem + soo desu
plain form + tame ni
because of, by, from ; This pattern indicates a cause.
cf. root form + tame ni
plain form + to / tte iimasu
he said, they said, we say ; This pattern indicates quoted information, "I say" or "We say". "to / tte" acts as quotation marker. In a casual conversation, iimasu is often omitted and the sentence ends with tte.
When telling a message or reporting information as in "He said" or "They said", tte itte imashita is commonly used instead of tte iimashita.
Itte is the te form of iimasu. The statement with tte iimashita sounds as if the speaker is looking back at the scene in the past, say in a story-telling style.
In formal speech or written language, to is used instead of tte.
plain form + to omoimasu
I think that
plain form + toki
This pattern means "when", "during" or "in case of". Depending on the case, toki follows either the root form (nai form) or the ta form (nakatta form) of a verb.
The tense of a statement, such as present or past, is shown by the main clause.
[subordinate clause A] toki, [main clause B]
When the main action "B" happens before the starting of the subordinate action "A" or before the completion of "A", toki follows the root form or the nai form.
When "B" happens after the completion of "A", toki follows the ta form or the nakatta form. "A" can be a phrase indicating not only an action but also a state or condition.
plain form + to wa kagiranai
be not always, be not necessarily
plain form + wa
This wa is used by female instead of desu or masu.
plain form + yoo desu
it seems, it looks like ; This pattern expresses the speaker's uncertain conjecture or guess based on a subjective judgment.
plain form : noun modifier
Japanese noun modifying clauses come before the nouns they modify. Verbs used in such clauses take the plain form.
The subject marker wa is replaced by ga.
|Watashi ga kau hon||the book I am going to buy|
|Watashi ga kawanai hon||the book I am not going to buy|
|Watashi ga katta hon||the book I bought|
|Watashi ga kawanakatta hon||the book I didn't buy|
te form : te
and, then ; The te form itself is used as a conjunction. The tense of a sentence is shown by the main clause.
Use the te form as a conjunction to show the order in which actions occur consecutively.
|2.||because, by ; The te form is also used to indicate a cause or a means.|
te form + agemasu
to do something for someone as a favor
te form + arimasu
This pattern expresses that as the result of someone's actions, something has been done or prepared already and is in a particular state or condition.
te form + bakari imasu
cf. ta form + bakari desu
te form + hoshii desu
I want someone to do something
This pattern is also used to express the speaker's wish or hope "I hope".
te form + ikimasu
This pattern has the following three usages;
|1.||expresses that something has been happening and will continue to happen in the future.|
|2.||expresses the direction that something is moving is away from the speaker.|
|3.||expresses consecutive actions "do something, then go somewhere".|
te form + imasu
This pattern expresses the present progressive, a habitual action or a state of being.
te form + iru tokoro desu
be doing right now
cf. root form + tokoro, ta form + tokoro
te form + kara
after, since, and then
cf. plain form + kara
te form + kimasu
This pattern has the following three usages;
|1.||expresses that something began in the past and is still continuing at the present time.|
|2.||expresses the direction of an action that something is coming towards the speaker.|
|3.||expresses consecutive actions "do something, then come back".|
te form + kudasai
please do ; This pattern expresses a request.
This pattern sometimes sounds like an order, so suimasen or chotto are often added to the statement in order to soften it.
In the casual conversation, kudasai is often omitted and the statement ends with te.
Chotto matte kudasaiChotto matte
te form + kuremasen ka?
would you please do ... ; This pattern expresses a polite request.
When your request may cause some trouble to the other person, the verb te form plus kuremasen ka? is more appropriate than -te kudasai.
In the casual speech, -te kuremasen ka? becomes -te kurenai?.
te form + kuremasu
someone does something for me or us as a favor
te form + mimasu
try to do something and see how it goes or what will happen.
te form + mitai desu
want to do something and see how it goes or what will happen.
This is a combination pattern, "te form + mimasu" + "tai desu".
te form + mo
even if ; This pattern expresses a conditional.
With ikura, ikura .... -te mo, it means "no matter how much".
This pattern can be used with an adjective and a noun phrase.
|Verb te form||+||mo||ame ga futte-mo|
|na-Adjective||+||de mo||hima de-mo|
|Noun||+||de mo||nichi-yoobi de-mo|
te form + mo ii desu
be allowed to do something ; This pattern is used to give permission.
te form + mo ii desu ka?
May I do it?, Can I do it? ; This pattern is used to ask for permission.
te form + moraemasu
(you) can have someone do something for you as a favor
te form + moraemasu ka?
Could you do it (for me)?
te form + moraeru to,
If you can do something for me, ... ; This to indicates a conditional, "if".
te form + moraimasu
someone does something for someone as a favor
te form + morai-tai
I want someone to do something ; This pattern expresses the speaker's desire, wish or request for someone to do something.
This is a combination pattern, "te form + moraimasu" + "tai desu".
te form + morai-tai-n desu ga
Would you please do something ; This pattern is used for making a polite request.
te form + okimasu
to do something in advance, to do something for future convenience
te form + shimaimashita (shimaimasu)
|1.||This pattern expresses that something has been completely finished.|
|2.||This pattern also expresses the speaker's regret in having done something.|
In casual speech, -te shimaimashita often becomes chatta or jatta.
te form + wa ikemasen
This pattern expresses a prohibition.
Conditional Form (ba Form)
conditional ; -ba
if, in case ; This form by itself expresses a conditional.
This pattern is used if [A] happens, then [B] usually happens, or when the speaker assumes that [B] will happen.
This is also used if you do [A], then you can get a result [B] which you expect, or [A] is necessary in order for [B] to happen.
conditional + ii desu ka? (-ba, ii desu ka?) / ii desu (-ba, ii desu)
what (when, where, etc.) should I do / it will be fine if ...., it will be enough if ...., you should do ; This is used for asking someone's advice or suggestion with an interrogative.
This pattern is similar to ta form + ra ii desu ka?.
The statement, -ba ii desu is used to give advice or a suggestion.
conditional + ii noni (-ba, ii noni / -ba yokatta noni)
you should do ; This pattern implies that the speaker feels why someone won't do / didn't something.
conditional + yokatta (-ba yokatta)
I should have done ; This expresses the speaker's regret.
volitional + to omoimasu / to omotte imasu
to plan to do, to be planning to do
This pattern is similar to tsumori desu.
volitional + to shimasu / to shite imasu
about to do something, be going to do
volitional + to shimashita
was just about to do something, tried to do something
Particles at the end or in the middle of a sentence
The particle ga is used as a conjunction meaning "but" or "however" in the middle of the statement.
This function is different from the subject marker.
|2.||This ga is also used to give a preliminary or an explanation for the main statement which comes later.|
kana... / kane...
This expresses that the speaker has a doubt or a suspicion.
This kedo is used the same usage of the particle ga above.
ne / nee
The particle ne is used to ask for agreement or confirmation like a tag question.
The particle yo is used when telling a new information or giving a friendly sound
This wa is used by females instead of desu or masu.